Current situation, problems and Countermeasures of

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The development status, problems and Countermeasures of printing industry

the printing industry originated in China and has a history of more than 2000 years. However, due to historical reasons, it has been in a decentralized and backward state for a long time and has not been able to develop? China's modern printing technology is an emerging technology that has been continuously developed with the reform and opening up since the 1980s, following the speech of "a gentleman's promise is crucial" Xi in August of the 20th century

I. Development and current situation of printing in China

1 Overview

China's block printing was always produced in manual workshops before the 1980s, and a few printing technologies were regarded as auxiliary processing procedures of factories, which was not considered to be a technology that could be considered elegant. At that time, the total output value of the printing industry was less than 1% of the total output value of the whole printing industry, which accounted for a small proportion compared with traditional printing such as lithography, embossing, gravure printing and so on? After the reform and opening up, advanced modern technology was rapidly introduced into China. In the 10 years from 1981 to 1991, the average annual growth rate was close to 30%, and then it increased by about 15% every year

according to incomplete statistics, there are nearly 100000 printing enterprises in China, of which about 30000 are beginning to take shape, and about 300000 employees are registered in the industry and commerce. 70% of the enterprises are distributed in Guangdong, Zhejiang, Fujian, Jiangsu, Shandong, Liaoning, Hubei, Sichuan and other provinces. From the perspective of scale, the proportion of large, medium and small enterprises is about 0.5:2.5:7; Since 2011, enterprises located in the southeast coast of Guangdong have accounted for about 50%, enterprises in Jiangsu, Zhejiang and Shanghai have accounted for about 30%, and enterprises located in other regions have accounted for about 20%

with the continuous growth of printing enterprises and employees, the number of printing dealers has also increased sharply. In addition to Sino foreign joint ventures and foreign product agents with considerable scale and strength, some domestic backbone machine material production enterprises have also set up distribution and consignment points throughout the country, forming their own marketing (three guarantees) service network? According to incomplete statistics, the dealers of printing machine materials have spread all over the country, among which the southeast coast, Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai and some large and medium-sized cities are more concentrated. At present, more than 500 dealers have begun to take shape? Some provincial and municipal printing material companies that used to operate lithography, embossment and gravure printing equipment and equipment also joined the distribution of printing equipment and equipment, as many as 30

2. The scale of printing enterprises is relatively larger, and the capital is relatively concentrated

more than a decade ago, printing plants with an annual output value of more than 1million yuan were very rare, while the annual output value was less than 200000 yuan, and workshops with an annual output value of tens of thousands to thousands of Yuan accounted for a large proportion? Now, except for the small workshops that still exist in towns and the new ones in the western region, the annual output value of general printing houses exceeds 200000 yuan, and it is not uncommon for them to have an annual output value of more than 10million yuan

3. Printing technology continues to improve

after the reform and opening up, overseas businesses actively promote products in China, and advanced modern printing technology is rapidly introduced? During this period, the China Silk Printing Association (the predecessor of the printing and image making Association) and the China silk printing industry association were successively established. By inviting overseas experts to come to China for technical lectures, setting up professional magazines, holding printing technology training courses, holding professional exhibitions and technical exchanges, and carrying out technical consulting and other activities, the modern printing technology was rapidly spread to all parts of China

(1) more and more employees have mastered modern printing technology such as photosensitive plate making and color gradient plate making printing

(2) more advanced modern equipment and equipment are gradually adopted. For example, 5% of the manufacturers have semi-automatic printing machines, and many manufacturers even use high and new technology, and introduce more advanced teaching typeless printing machines (inkjet machines or teaching typesetting equipment, 81% of the factories in the rubber experiment adopt computer design and output printing)

4. There are a wide range of printing machinery, gradually developing towards high-precision, digital control and automation

20 years ago, there were almost no special printing machinery manufacturers and suppliers in China. By the early 1990s, there were nearly 20 printing equipment manufacturers

the development of China's economy has brought unlimited business opportunities to the development of the printing market. So far, domestic printing machinery has developed, and there are more than 40 product types, such as manual, semi-automatic, 3/4 automatic, fully automatic, monochrome and multicolor, plane and curved surface machines, etc? From the perspective of models, in addition to frog type printing machines, there are more and more manufacturers of four column lifting and bouncing tables

plate making equipment, such as manual, pneumatic, automatic stretching machines, dryers of various specifications and models, light sources and plate printers of different specifications, can basically meet the needs of the domestic printing market, and domestic large format (2 × 4m) printing machine and large projection printing machine have been equipped, and are welcomed by many advertising companies? There are many types of peripheral equipment, such as pad printing machine, heat transfer machine, trademark machine, die-cutting machine, etc., and the product quality is constantly improving. Many products are sold abroad

it is worth mentioning that, in addition to the many lithographic cylinder type full-automatic printing machines with high accuracy and different specifications that have been produced in the printing industry, in 2002, Guangdong Xingning Zhongren special printing equipment Co., Ltd. successfully developed China's first eight color full-automatic lithographic printing machine, filling the gap in China

5. The development of printing equipment to multiple varieties and high quality

China's printing equipment manufacturing industry (including ink, photosensitive glue, silk, glue scraper, frame, etc.) has developed from scratch, from small to large, and from weak to strong with the reform and opening up of our country, and has become an independent system. In recent years, it has developed rapidly towards multiple varieties and high quality

(1) printing ink

at present, there are about 50 printing ink production plants with a certain scale in China, and there are about 150 kinds of products, including printing slurry series, water-based printing ink series, solvent printing ink series, UV curing printing ink series and various functional printing inks. The varieties are complete, which can basically meet the various needs of the market, and the ink quality has also been greatly improved

(2) photosensitive adhesive

at present, China has about 50 photosensitive adhesive manufacturers, of which 10 are beginning to take shape. The product quality can basically meet the domestic market demand, and some are sold to Southeast Asia? Domestic water-based, solvent based diazo photosensitive adhesive is widely used in plastic, paper, signs, metal, glass, ceramics, instruments, leather, enamel, textile printing and dyeing industries with its excellent performance. It is an ideal photosensitive adhesive for printing at present? The non diazo single liquid photosensitive adhesive produced by some wholly foreign-owned and joint ventures is an ideal photosensitive material for making high-precision printed circuit boards, and is deeply welcomed by the majority of users

(3) silk

domestic medium and low-grade silk can basically meet the current domestic market demand. Now about 30 domestic enterprises have introduced foreign advanced equipment and raw materials, which can produce polyester monofilament plain weave silk below 300 mesh, which can basically meet some domestic market demand? In recent years, some enterprises have made great efforts to produce high-precision silk for printing? At present, many silk manufacturing enterprises in China are trying to expand production specifications, improve product grades, and increase product specifications to meet market demand

6. The application field continues to expand

the mastery of modern printing technology makes printing, a universal printing that is not limited by printing materials and shapes, play an infinite potential. The application field continues to expand, mainly providing supporting services for the booming light industry, textile industry, construction industry, electronic industry, packaging industry, advertising industry, household appliances, culture and other industries? In recent decades, the market demand of many new printing products, such as CD-ROM, business card printing, thin film switch, outdoor advertising, interior decoration and trendy clothing, has further promoted the development of printing

According to relevant data, in 1999, the total output value of the world printing industry was 750billion US dollars, while the total output value of China's printing industry was 150billion yuan (less than 20billion US dollars), of which the printing output value basically accounted for about 10% of the output value of the whole printing industry. It can be seen from this that China's printing industry has developed from scratch and made remarkable achievements since the reform and opening up more than 20 years ago, However, due to the poor foundation of China's printing industry, less state support, late start and other reasons, there is still a big gap compared with industrial developed countries, mainly in terms of enterprise scale, brand awareness, service market, technical level and talent team construction. China's printing industry has developed from the primary development stage to the comprehensive improvement and maturity stage, and the market space and growth potential are huge? The main problems are as follows:

1 From the previous printing exhibitions, the vast majority of printing machine materials are medium and low-grade products, and high-precision products are still unsatisfactory

although some domestic enterprises have developed high-precision, fully automatic printing machinery products in recent years, users have reported that the product quality stability of some enterprises is poor, and the products are delivered to users without strict inspection before leaving the factory. In addition, the after-sales service cannot keep up, resulting in frequent quality disputes? Some users prefer to buy imported equipment with foreign exchange at a price many times higher than that of domestic machines? Almost all of the high-precision flat printing machines used by some PCB enterprises in Guangdong are products from South Korea or China that keep the instruments clean, parts and accessories complete and safe in Taiwan, which is thought-provoking? In terms of printing equipment, the above phenomenon is also very prominent. So far, the annual import volume of silk, photosensitive adhesive, ink, etc. accounts for 50% - 60% of the national consumption respectively? Moreover, at present, almost all of the printing of some high-end printing adopts imported equipment (including rubber scraping)

2. The market is not perfect, the legal system is not perfect, counterfeiting is common in some areas, the technology is low, the level is repeated, and the product quality is rough, which has greatly affected the healthy development of the printing industry

China is in the period of economic transformation. Some industries have excess enterprise capacity, insufficient operation and serious equipment idleness. On the whole, China's printing industry is a "sunrise" industry, especially the printing industry. Compared with other printing methods, the printing industry has less investment and quick results. It is in a period of rapid development, which makes some non industry enterprises and self-employed operators eager to try? Under the condition of market economy, any product with better profits, once the technology is popularized, will rush forward, coupled with social influence, interest drive, various contradictions within the enterprise, so that some enterprise technology, marketing, management personnel "jump bad" will soon breed an emerging enterprise? The bosses of some enterprises in the industry reluctantly said that the loss of key personnel of the enterprise took away part of the technology and market, and became competitors, which made them worry deeply? In recent years, with the development of market economy and the intensification of competition, this phenomenon has a tendency to intensify year by year? In the fierce market competition, relying on counterfeiting other people's products and quickly manufacturing products at low cost to put on the market has become a common phenomenon in the industry? For example, at a printing exhibition, the boss of an enterprise in Guangdong was very dissatisfied and helplessly pointed to an exhibit and said that this machine was exactly the same as the machine exhibited by our company in terms of shape and structure. Even the color of the surface paint had not changed, and it was completely counterfeit

3. Market disorder, vicious competition and endless price war make it difficult for many enterprises in the industry to take steps

after China's entry into the WTO, foreign enterprises and their products began to flow into the Chinese market, which greatly squeezed the originally small Indian market. Coupled with disorderly vicious competition, the survival of many machine material production enterprises was seriously threatened, and even some dealers felt unable to operate? There is a positioner

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